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All statistical analysis must start with data, and these soccer prediction engines skim results from former matches. The exhaustion subscale was stable with the auto-correlation being.
In other words, the exhaustion and disengagement subscales include items that refer to their opposites, namely vigor and dedication, respectively.
Positively framed items should be reverse-coded if one wants to assess burnout. Alternatively, we propose that researchers interested in assessing work engagement can recode the negatively framed items to measure engagement with the OLBI.
Demerouti and her colleagues , tested the hypothesis that instruments including positively and negatively worded items can produce artificial factor solutions in which items framed in one way are likely to cluster.
In both studies, this factor structure was clearly worse than the structure assuming exhaustion and disengagement as underlying factors.
This indicates that the wording of the items does not create artificial factor solutions; rather it forces individuals to read and respond carefully to each individual item.
Moreover, since the model with exhaustion and disengagement as underlying factors fitted well to the data, these studies suggest that the OLBI can be used to assess burnout and work engagement simultaneously.
Maslach and Leiter agree with our standpoint that burnout and engagement are two opposite poles of one continuum.
They rephrased burnout as an erosion of engagement with the job, whereby energy turns into exhaustion, involvement turns into cynicism, and efficacy turns into ineffectiveness.
In their view, engagement is characterized by energy, involvement and professional efficacy, which are the direct perfectly inversely related opposites of the three burnout dimensions.
However, it should be noted that their MBI includes negative items only. Therefore, low mean levels of exhaustion and cynicism cannot be taken as being representative of vigor and dedication.
For example, employees who indicate that they are not fatigued at all need not necessarily be full with energy.
Work engagement is defined as a positive, fulfilling, work- related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption.
Vigor refers to high levels of energy and mental resilience while working. Dedication refers to a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, and pride.
The third dimension of engagement is called absorption, which was found to be another constituting element of engagement in 30 in-depth interviews Schaufeli et al.
Using a non-parametric scaling technique, they showed that these core burnout and engagement dimensions can indeed be seen as opposites of each other along two distinct bipolar dimensions energy vs.
It can be concluded from this study that negatively and positively framed items can be used to assess the core dimensions of burnout and engagement.
The Present Study The central aim of the present study is to examine the psychometric quality of the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory Demerouti et al.
In addition, we will investigate whether the OLBI can be used to assess both burnout and engagement. We will validate the OLBI in two broad occupational groups: health care professionals and white collar workers.
The original definition of burnout included people work as a crucial determinant of burnout, but since the MBI was specifically constructed for the assessment of burnout in this sector, the burnout scores of health care workers could not be compared with other occupations.
On the basis of the literature, we formulated the following hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: The OLBI has a two-factor structure including the dimensions of exhaustion and disengagement.
Measurement of Burnout and Engagement 9 Hypothesis 2: A factor structure including exhaustion and disengagement fits better to the data than a factor structure including two factors representing positively and negatively framed items.
Hypothesis 3: The factor structure of the OLBI is invariant across health care professionals and white collar workers.
Hypothesis 4: Levels of burnout are higher within the health care sector as compared to white collar workers. Method Procedure and Samples The current study was conducted among eight different groups of Dutch employees, working in one of two occupational sectors health care and white collar occupations.
All studies except one were part of regular occupational health assessments. The e-mail briefly explained the goal of the study, and emphasized the confidentiality and anonymity of the answers.
Participants could log in on a secured website with a self-constructed password. They then filled in all questions, and received online feedback about their levels of burnout.
The study among the physicians was not part of a regular occupational health assessment. The online instrument was part of the online service provided to members of the Royal Dutch Association of Doctors.
Therefore, we could not calculate the response rate for this group. The health care sample included The most frequently mentioned educational level was high school Most participants had a partner and child ren The white collar sample included The majority of the participants had a college degree In total, The OLBI measures burnout with two dimensions: exhaustion and disengagement.
The eight items of the exhaustion sub-scale are generic, and refer to general feelings of emptiness, overtaxing from work, a strong need for rest, and a state of physical exhaustion.
The answering categories are the same as for exhaustion. For both sub-scales, four items are positively worded and four items are negatively worded.
The reliability for was both for exhaustion and disengagement. There were no substantial differences between the two sectors regarding the internal consistencies of the scales.
The bi-variate correlations between the two dimensions of exhaustion and disengagement were for health care and white collar workers.
Exploratory Factor Analyses In order to test our first hypothesis suggesting a two-factor structure , we first examined the factor structure of the OLBI with exploratory factor analyses EFA; principal axis factoring using varimax rotation for both sectors separately.
The rotated factor structure for each sector is displayed in Table 1. Several findings of the EFA are worth noting. The OLBI has a clear structure in health care, with exhaustion items forming the first factor and disengagement items forming the second factor.
Only item D6 had double loadings on both factors and therefore it is unclear to which factor it belongs. Results for the white collar workers are fairly similar including the double loading of item D6.
The only difference is that the first factor consisted of the disengagement items and the second factor referred to the exhaustion items.
Taken together, these EFA-findings indicate that the factor structure of the OLBI is confirmed for both health care and white collar workers providing support for our first hypothesis.
Measurement of Burnout and Engagement 12 Specifically, CFA was used to test Hypothesis 2 stating that the responses on the OLBI items underlie the burnout components exhaustion and disengagement or the method of item framing positive and negative item formulation.
This relies on the criteria of Campbell and Fiske for multitrait-multimethod matrices and corresponds to the methodology proposed by Bagozzi Specifically, we tested the Trait model, which hypothesizes that the variation in the items can be explained fully by the underlying traits the burnout components plus errors, and without any differentiation among item framing.
The burnout items were included as observed variables and the burnout components as correlated latent factors. Both exhaustion and disengagement were operationalized by eight items.
The Method model rests on the assumption that the structure is determined not by the burnout components but by whether items were positively or negatively formulated.
This model does not take into consideration the different burnout components. It includes the 16 burnout items and two correlated latent method factors.
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Jetzt registrieren Passwort vergessen?The majority of the participants had a college degree Perhaps the most interesting question answered by the present study is whether scales that include both positively and negatively formulated items to operationalize the same dimensions include two types of factors, namely the theoretical dimensions and the dimensions concerning the wording of the items. Mathematical football predictions. Results suggest that both types of factors influence item responses at least regarding the OLBI. A fair bit of judgment is necessary Score Oldenburg. These Leovegas Bonus may be due to the worse working conditions that health care workers are exposed to compared to white collars. Disengaged employees endorse negative attitudes toward their work objects, work content, or work in general. Since the OLBI Chamions items that measure the whole continuum for both dimensions ranging from vigor to exhaustion and from dedication to disengagement it can be used to measure both burnout and its opposite, work engagement. Bakker, A. Measurement of Burnout and Engagement 23 Schaufeli, W. Shirom, A.